Sergiu GARSTEA, PhD Student, State University of Moldova
Economic development is a quantitative and qualitative concept with a much wider scope than the economic growth. While economic growth is measured by a limited number of indicators, of which the most important is the growth rate of GDP, in this context the economic development implies a dynamic equilibrium in the long run, designing trajectories for a sustainable growth that will be based on optimum use of all available resources, the continued development of innovative potential and human capital, creating and developing strong institutions to foster economic growth and, obviously, but not least, ensure a judicious distribution of income and wealth (the Gini index). The goal of the research is investigating the state of the global economy in the early XXI century, in the post-crisis period, in order to detect development directions and adaptation to new economic conditions. At global level, cheap and clean natural gas is increasingly becoming a competitor of the coal as the main energy source. It can be mentioned that in many countries, the coal is starting to become unpopular to the extent that governments are tightening the laws on environmental protection. The challenges are just as real and complex as the opportunities. Estimation of the global market is one of the tools of research, identifying and implementing thoughtful, well-developed solutions. It is important to define the challenges and opportunities when they arise along the way in order to adjust them properly and move forward.